Saturday, March 14, 2020
Major Shifts in the Politics of Republican and Democratic Parties The history of the Democratic Party has seen significant policy shifts since the end of the Civil War. Today, the party boasts as the sole supporter of the interests of middles class Americans, farmers, and workers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Major Shifts in the Politics of Republican and Democratic Parties specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Throughout its 19 and 20th century history, the party held socially conservative ideologies hence drawing substantial backing from working-class white males. The partyÃ¢â¬â¢s New Deal programs of the 1930s, which immensely shaped the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic direction, received widespread support from working-class Americans. From the 1930s onwards until 1960s, the politics of the Democratic Party was primarily shaped by working-class Americans, a tremendous shift in the history of the party. This was because conservative working-class citizens supported pro-working class e conomic reforms. This coincided with the time when the party sponsored the Labor Relations Act effectively controlling labor unions. Before then, unions worked independently from the government control. In the 1960s, Democratic politics rallied against global anti-Communism and safeguarded fundamental freedoms for all American citizens. The partyÃ¢â¬â¢s policies supported effective governance system, and disproved big government and supported civil rights movements. The Democrats promoted state rights and endeavored to use federal taxes to redistribute wealth from industrialized North to the poor Southern states. During this time, the party adopted significant policies supporting progressive labor reforms, tariff revisions, and regulation of large corporations. After WWII, there was a major shift in the Democratic manifesto as the party developed a program to safeguard civil liberties. The program outlined stringent policies to curb anti-lynching and anti-poll tax, established a p ermanent Fair Employment Practices Commission and a Commission on Civil Rights, and outlawed segregation in armed forces essentially abandoning its conservative position on State Rights. Historically, the Republican Party represented Northern interests passionately supporting capitalists and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth elites and oversaw the Reconstruction in the South. Today, the Republicans strongly refute past social injustices hence forsaking several elements, which characterized AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s liberal past, thus propelling the country to its present liberal ideals such as securing independence for labor movements.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Republican platform espoused socio-economic changes promoting industrialization, liberalism, and capitalist systems. Since the Civil War, significant shifts in Republican politics have seen strengthened Federal government polici es, developed federalism and industrialization. Because of the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s shift in political principles, it lost significant support in the Southern states after the Great Depression because of its persistent criticism of wealthy Southerners and big corporations. However, after World War II, the Republican Party abandoned its domestic policy and shifted its political ideals to focus on international diplomacy. In the 1990s and early 2000, the Republicans reduced the size of the government and balanced budgetary allocations thus abandoning its conservative philosophies that favored big government and favoritism in budgetary allocations. During the 19 and 20th centuries, Republicans supported economic policies, which favored investments in corporations and big businesses. Lately, the Republicans have taken up the Ã¢â¬Å"social agendaÃ¢â¬ historically adopted by Democrats. Interestingly, this shift in the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s political ideals has put the party at odds with its conserv ative supporters in the South. Consequently, this shift in political philosophy has divided AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s working-class, some of whom have voted against their individual economic interests. Today, republican voters have embraced the free-market system and abandoned their traditional wealth redistribution system. Through taxations, corporations and big businesses have become the largest recipients of redistributed wealth and this has created unnecessary socio-economic and political imbalance making conservative Republicans to think that they are taxed to pay for liberal programs.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
History Paper - Essay Example Generally, the language is very easy and imparts full meaning of the excerpt. However, there is one place where the excerpt reads, Ã¢â¬Å"we oppose the greater conception -- the moral orderÃ¢â¬ (Roosevelt) is a bit difficult to understand. Nevertheless, the statements that follow make it clear. In my judgment, assertions which provide important and valuable insights and guidance for governing societies and nations today are the first and the fourth freedom. In the present age, certain nations are invading others because the former are more powerful than the latter. People whose countries are being invaded are denied the right to speak for their rights. They are not powerful enough technologically or geographically to fight for their rights. This has resulted into a state of fear for such countries. Thus, in order to become a free and governing society in the present age, it is important to be free of the freedom of fear and to have the freedom to speak. The third freedom i.e. the freedom from want is literally unachievable in the context of the present age which is basically an age of consumers. People respect those who have more buying power and who are greater consumers. The basic need to consume originates in want and if people get freedom from want, this finishes every thing. On the other hand, it is really not possible to make people free from want in any case as want is the fundamental sign of life. As we live, we need things. Our worldly needs only come to an end when we die. From this perspective, saying that we want to be free from want is illogical. In fact, the freedom from want is no longer relevant in the 21st century in which want and consumption is the epicenter of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s business and economic growth. Also, the freedom of practicing religion is already there to a large extent in the 21st century. In a vast majority of the countries around the world, people are free to practice their religion irrespective of whether they are a
Monday, February 10, 2020
Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Criticisms of the Nineteenth Century Gender Order - Essay Example We live in a world where each day there arise new issues on gender. The most striking part is the role of women in the society as opposed to that of their male counterparts. In the 19th century, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other women activists realized that being denied influential rights such as the right to vote while men were allowed to was oppressing women. It was argued that since women were attached to men through husbands and fathers, men could vote for them. Men were also the main decision makers and women were only to submit to what had been decided. One wonders how womenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs could be catered for if they could not be allowed to vote. There are issues which are unique to women and need only women to address them and focus is placed on Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a woman who feared nothing to voice out the plight of women at a time when the cultural values in America restricted women from trying to challenge or be above men. The woman was simply to give birth and take c are of the children and the husband. This paper presents some of the criticisms that were made by Elizabeth Stanton such as issues to do with birth control, divorce and voting rights and shows how she fought to correct them. It analyses this issues in the current America to show that though some gender issues have been given attention and solved, others continue to emerge hence the need for continual review of the issues affecting women. The fight to gain women rights started and still goes on!!! Colin L. Powell once said that women rights are human rights hence failing to address issues affecting women implies failing to address the issues affecting the entire humanity.... As a result many of the challenges facing them were not addressed in the governments in place. Women were expected to respect the will of the men and therefore their choices. She felt that men only exercised tyrannical leadership towards women and never cared about their needs. The fact that women did not vote, according to her, was an implication that they were mute. That their plights could not be heard nor addressed. At one point she was furious to the point that she asked why the ignorant black men and immigrant men were allowed to vote while educated white women who were natives of America could not be allowed to vote. She felt the need to sensitize other women to fight for their rights to vote for these could be the only way in which their needs were to be addressed. They had to come together and with one voice demand for the rights that they had been denied for years. They had to be involved in political maters for this could enable them to be free from the frequent exploitati ons and dependence on men. This suggestion was obviously going to be met with a lot of resistance since it touched on some of the cultural values of the American society, which had been held by the American people for a long time. This is why Elizabeth Stanton and her female friend Susan B. Anthony did not see this dream they held come true up to their deaths. It took a long time for the American people, more especially men, to agree to the adoption of the ideas advocated by Stanton and other American feminists of the time. Stanton was also opposed to the idea the idea that men should have better and advanced education than women. This, she had experienced when her father
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The prince of Verona Essay In this essay, I will be comparing the way the 400 years old William Shakespeares film Romeo and Juliet was transformed by Baz luharmann for the understanding of the modern audience. Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare 400 years ago. In the past plays were acted in the theatre. The plays were totally different from the way they are now. The theatre had a stage where the play was to be acted; this had an entrance and an exit. There was no lighting and no scenery; there was also a balcony on the first floor where some scenes were acted. Below the stage was where the audience stood to watch the play. There were also two galleries. At the top of the building there was a flag to show there was a play in progress. This is a sign for the illiterate population, who couldnt read notices. A Prologue is a piece of useful information before a play or story is acted. It tells us what we are supposed to expect. In Shakespeares time the narrator would have come out before the play started to deliver the prologue to the audience. This is very important as there is no form of scenery or lighting to describe the location or what is happening. Hence, the audience have to be attentive and listen to everything that is said in the play. This can be illustrated in this quotation In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. This is a typical statement a narrator will say when delivering the Prologue to inform the audience where the play is taking place. Baz Luhrmanns film has a totally different way of presenting the prologue. In this present day we have newscasters who give us information about what is happening internally and externally. This is the device Baz Luhrmanns uses. The film starts with a television set and a newscaster reading the news. This is the way the prologue is first presented. She talks about the setting in fair Verona, where we lay our scene, she talks about the main story and characters in this quotation two households both alike in dignity and she also says short statements which are a brief summary of the play. At the top right corner of the screen there is a picture of a broken ring and below it are these words; star crossed lovers. This illustrates that there is love and a broken relationship between two lovers in the film. Also the broken ring suggests that the lovers relationship will be but a short one as it is destined to end in tragedy. Also there is dramatic operatic music at the background; it suggests the film will most likely be a tragedy as is often seen in grand operas. The Prologue is delivered again. This is very different from the first time; it contains flashes of scenes in the film/ informative clips. This prologue has a voiceover of Friar. He is the perfect person for this job because he knows the story from the start to the end. The clips are very informative. The two towers with the names MONTAGUE AND CAPULET suggest wealth and probably business rivalry, which a modern audience would understand. It also shows they are both well-to-do families. We can also say they are of the same status: It also has shots of the statues of Jesus and Mary this shows a church is involved and it reflects the Catholic religion practised in Verona. There are also flashes of murder, city in flames, police aircraft. People in these flashes have worried and troubled looks on their faces. There is also this newspaper article with a caption ANCIENT GRUDGE. This explains that the two families have had this grudge for years and generations. This is because a modern audience is literate; the film director can use text on the screen, whereas Shakespeares original audience could not read. The line civil blood makes civil hands unclean is illustrated using the flashes of fire in the streets, bloodshed, and violence. Another major difference between the films is the names and appearance. In Shakespeares original play the heads of the families were just called Lady and Lord Capulet or Montague and to differentiate the families they would have probably used red clothes for a family and blue for another family. This is totally different in Baz Luhrmanns film. He gives the characters names. The Capulets are Fulgencio and Gloria. This suggests they originated from Italy. Caroline and Ted Montague are of north European origin. The audience are now aware that the families are both business rivals and from different communities. Their appearances also differ: the Montagues are blond and blue eyed and the Capulets have a Mediterranean appearance. Act 1 Scene 1 then begins and the music changes. The music that follows the film is a classic and tragic kind of music. It is giving the audience clues about immerse drama and tragedy of what they are to witness. It is a hi-life, hip-pop music followed by the arrival of the Montague boys. They arrive in a yellow car with the music turned on loudly. They wear bright-coloured beach shirts. Their car plate number even has Mi n, their family name on it. This entry is very common to the modern audience. It is the usual show-off of young boys from a rich background, who like to party and are carefree. The scene is well lit and shows a cool happy atmosphere. The music changes at the arrival of the Capulets. It is now a menacing kind of music. It sends a dangerous, serious, down-to-earth kind of music. The Capulets arrive in a stylish fashion with cowboy boots that have steel plates on them; they come in black official suits with bullet belts. They have a purposeful serious look. They portray the real bad-boys attitude, ready to fight. All this takes place in a gas station the equivalent of the public haunt of men. The Montague boys sight their enemy. They both start taunting each other. Abra Capulet starts it; it all seems like a comic. Then Tybalt who is Juliets cousin comes out, and takes a step further. The Montagues despite all their loud behaviour seen reluctant to fight, but Tybalt, who is a trouble- maker, brings out his gun and starts shooting. The Montagues start defending themselves, leading it to a real fight. It gets to a climax when Tybalt drops his cigar and the place goes up in flames drawing the attention of the police. The mayhem which follows is very familiar to the audience who see action movies. The Prince of Verona is updated to be the chief of police. He is the peace maker and makes a stand. He calls both head of the families and tells them if any fight reoccurs disturbing the peace of the streets they will pay for it with their lives. In conclusion, I think Baz Lurhmann has done a very good job. The music interprets and indicates the stage of the scenes. Instead of swords, they use guns which are a normal sight to a modern audience as they are used to watching action films. The dressing also speaks a lot of the characters, so does the body language, especially that of Tybalt: his looks, his pose and the way he carries himself suggest trouble. The violent scene shows irresponsibility and senselessness of the feud. It is this pointless violence that destroys the lives of the innocent lovers ROMEO AND JULIET whom the play is named after and whom we meet later in the play. Finally, I think the opening is very effective as everyone can understand through the clips and well delivered Prologue. The costume and setting of the scene are also important as it speaks to the Audience even if they do not understand the Shakespearean language.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
No Prison Time for Juvenile Crime Students are shooting up schools across the country. Kids as young as twelve and thirteen are being convicted of murdering their peers. Right here in Hanover, two teens have been charged with the murders of Dartmouth professors. Although juvenile crime across the country may not be on the rise, high publicity, headline-grabbing juvenile-perpetrated homicides certainly are. Prosecutors, attempting to satiate public demand for "justice," have begun trying these juvenile offenders in adult courts and sending them to adult prison. But is it really fair to send children into a penal system like ours, which ignores rehabilitation and is almost exclusively focused upon retribution? Is it right to essentially give up on these children at such a young age? Is this aggressive prosecution tactic in the best interest of the juvenile defendant or the community as a whole? No. Most studies and statistics suggest that sending juveniles to adult prisons increases recidivism rates among those teens transferred. Jeffrey Fagan, who spearheaded an extens... ... Responsibility must be instilled on these kids, and punishment must be administered, but dooming children to hard time is hardly justice. When kids perpetrate violence they must be punished, but these kids also deserve a second chance, and this country has the means to support that second chance. No 12-year-old should spend the rest of his or her life in jail; no 13-year-old should spend time in an adult prison; and no 14-year-old should be denied a reasonable chance to turn his or her life around. This country must strive for something better.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
What is considered art has been a controversial question for many years in history and today. There are various forms and types of art. Because art is very complex and diverse, it is viewed and conceptualized in many different ways. Nancy G. Heller states even though a type of artwork is hard to understand, itÃ¢â¬â¢s considered art, and artwork that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be disregarded from other types of art. She feels as though people shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be intimidated by artwork thatÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to understand and her main goal is to try to help people feel more comfortable around art they donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand. Picasso believes that all art needs to be an original in order to be considerably successful. He states that nature and art are completely different things. Picasso explains that art is a lie that allows us to realize the truth. And finally, John Berger speaks about publicity being a form of art, and how it uses art to manipulate people into buy ing what is publicized. Berger says publicity ads have a way of working because ads focus on the future, which people are attracted to more than the present. Each of these authors have different opinions on how art is viewed and conceived, however they unite from similar points in their views. All art is art, and shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be dismissed. In Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Statement to Marius De Zayas,Ã¢â¬â¢ 1923,Ã¢â¬ Picasso states that art has to convince people of its truthfulness. In his article, Picasso defends the art of cubism.Ã¢â¬âbecause cubism, like many other types of art, is not understood yet by most people. However, cubism isnÃ¢â¬â¢t any different from a type of art someone likes and understandsÃ¢â¬âit shares the same principles or elements as any/ all other types of art. Picasso elaborates on his claims by giving the reader an example of him reading an English book. He says that reading a book doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense to him, yet it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that the English language doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. He states that no one should be responsible for him not being able to understand what he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know much about. Picasso believes that an individual shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t say a type of art isnÃ¢â¬â¢t art only because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand it. The individual should, instead, try to understand it, and if he/ she still doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t consider it to be an art, the individual should claim to just dislike that specific type of art. Picasso and Heller both agree that art is art and that it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be questioned. Nancy G. HellerÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Ã¢â¬Å"Why a Painting is Like a Pizza: a Guide to Understanding and EnjoyingÃ Modern ArtÃ¢â¬ starts with the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s experience making a pizza in Texas. From her experience, she concluded that painting is like a pizza. Just as many people have a variety of taste in pizza that they prefer, when people look at art, they have certain preferences in art as well. Some people usually completely dismiss certain groups of art, saying its not art at all. Heller defends artists who are victims of these cruel remarks by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"anything anyone says is art should be in fact be regarded as artÃ¢â¬ (Heller 10). All art should not only be regarded as art, but art also is a lie that uncovers the truth. In HellerÃ¢â¬â¢s article, one of her examples shows Rosa BonheurÃ¢â¬â¢s painting Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢The Horse FairÃ¢â¬â¢ (1853).Ã¢â¬ This painting is very realistic like a photograph. On the contrary, the painting is just very convincing. BonheurÃ¢â¬â¢s painting of the galloping horses lie to the viewer, because the horses arenÃ¢â¬â¢t actually galloping in front of the viewer. However, it helps the viewer recognize the truth from the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s lies. All art lies, which help the viewer, uncover the truth. Nature and art arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the same. Only something real can be natural. Picasso agrees with Heller by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"nature and art, being two different things, cannot be the same thing. Through art, we express our conception of what nature is notÃ¢â¬ (Picasso par. 5). Picasso states that art needs to be an original ideaÃ¢â¬âotherwise it is useless. An artwork being orig inal allows the viewer to notice the truth. He suggests that art isnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually what the artwork portrays. Ã¢â¬Å"Art is not truth. Art is a lie that makes us realize the truthÃ¢â¬ (Picasso par. 3). Although paintings arenÃ¢â¬â¢t real, it can symbolize something that is real. In Ã¢â¬Å"Ways of SeeingÃ¢â¬ by John Berger, the author talks about all art (publicity ads or paintings) must be convincing to the viewer. Ã¢â¬Å"Publicity begins by working on a natural appetite for pleasure. But it cannot offer the real object of pleasure and there is no convincing substituted for pleasure in that pleasureÃ¢â¬â¢s own terms. The more convincingly publicity conveys the pleasure of bathing in a warm, distant sea, the more the spectator-buyer will become aware that he is hundreds of miles away from that sea and the more remote the chance of bathing in it will seem to himÃ¢â¬ (Berger 132). The author gives an example of how publicity ads work by suggesting if a publicity ad was to show the pleasures of bathing in a warmÃ and distant sea, the viewer (or buyer) will realize that he is many miles away from the sea that the ad is portraying, and the chance of bathing in that sea will seem far to him. If the viewers arenÃ¢â¬â¢t convinced from art, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a publicity ad or a painting, that artwork is not successful. If a viewer thinks that the representation of whatever the ad is trying to sell is intangible, the viewer will be less convinced. John Berger and Picasso share the same beliefs that art should live in the present. Since there is constant exposure of publicity ads, Berger believes that ads live in the present. Publicity ads are located almost anywhere in this world. From magazines and TVs to buses and billboards, ads are everywhere. Publicity ads are not only constantly around a personÃ¢â¬â¢s surroundings, but also are always updated and/ or renewed. Although Berger talks about publicity ads living in the moment, they never represent the present time. Picasso similarly states, if a painting is looked at and appreciated by the viewer, itÃ¢â¬â¢s alive, living in the present. PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s work has been echoed in his own idea. All of his work Ã¢â¬Å"was made for the present and with the hope that it will always remain in the presentÃ¢â¬ (Picasso par. 11). Picasso gives an example of the Greek and Egyptian art. He proclaims that Greek and Egyptian art is more alive today than it was when the artwork as cre ated. People are intrigued about how the artwork was made back then, and that alone keeps the early Greek and Egyptian artwork alive in the present. All authors have common beliefs on how art should be viewed and conceived. Art is art and it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be questioned. If art is hard to understand, it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be dismissed as not artÃ¢â¬ ¦ it should categorized as a type of art an individual dislikes. Furthermore, paintings donÃ¢â¬â¢t tell the truth; however it is filled with lies that help an individual recognize the truth through the painting being convincing. And lastly, an artwork lives in the present timeÃ¢â¬âeven if the artwork was made in the past. Work Cited Berger, John. Ways Of Seeing. London: Penguin Book, 1977. Print. Heller, Nancy G. Why a Painting is Like a Pizza: a Guide to Understanding and Enjoying Modern Art. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002. Print. Picasso, Pablo. Ã¢â¬Å"Statement to Marius de Zayas.Ã¢â¬ The Arts. NY, May 1923. Translation approved by Picasso. Web. 18 September 2012. .
Monday, January 6, 2020
Causality, Hume, and Quantum Mechanics It is my intention, in the course of this essay, to take the work of David Hume and reapply it to causality using quantum mechanical theory. When I refer to causality, I am referring to the belief that events have a relationship of action A causing action B where A is considered to be the final cause of B. I also refer to the belief that we can know and understand these causal relationships and thusly know how the system works. This is a concept that I do not agree with. This mechanistic causality, I feel, is a category of the mind. I wish to make it clear, before I begin, that I am not questioning the idea that cause/effect interactions do occur in reality. I am, however,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Instead of saying, I dropped the egg, it broke because of that action, one would say or think, The event of the egg breaking is an event preceded by an acceleration downward toward the floor. That event is preceded by a slip of my hand, or some external force. The event of the slip is preceded by a distracting thought and/or a moistening of my hand from contact with a wet surface, or by neither event. The event of the distracting thought being preceded by a memory of meeting an attractive person and/or having too much coffee, or by neither event. The event of the moist hand being preceded by failing to wipe the counter properly and/or inadequate drying of my hands, or by neither event. To be thorough, each of these strings of events would have to be traced back through each branch and go back until one finally rea ches the beginning of each string of events, the beginning of the universe, if there is one. But even this examination of events is not sufficient to describe all that goes on in this event. Each portion of the causal mechanism is divisible within itself into internal causes. Take the slip of the hand as an example. Some internal firing of neurons resulted in the slip of the hand. To be thorough, weShow MoreRelatedDefending Hard Determinism Against the Strongest Objections Raised Against It1161 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages of both hard determinism and its eventual nemesis indeterminism. Based on these definitions there will be a personal attempt at denying hard determinism. This will be accomplished through the introduction of David Hume and his radical philosophy on causality and the relation this may have on hard determinism, as well as the various possibilities it may distinguish. Furthermore the Causal Principle will also be introduced and slandered in its incapability to provide a Read MoreHume s Theory Of Free Will2486 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesemphasized the freedom of action instead of freedom of will. For Hume, freedom means only the absence of external coercive force. I will argue in favor of Hume definition of free will from three perspectives. Firstly, I will argue that HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s agnosticism concerning the problem of mind and body relation was the solid epistemological basis for this this definition and it has not been refuted on scientific grounds. Unlike Descartes, Hume didnÃ¢â¬â¢t speculate about the nature of human mind and whether itRead MoreDavid Hume s Theory Of Free Will1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAre you choosing to read this essay? Or are you just constrained by the laws of nature? David Hume describes The Problem of Free Will as Ã¢â¬Ëthe most contentious question of metaphysicsÃ¢â¬â¢. Initial exploration into this school of thought gave rise to several philosophical viewpoints supported by modern thinkers. Hard determinism bases its v iewpoint on the strict theory of causality, rejecting the idea of free will. On the contrary, Libertarianism opposes this, supporting the concept of free will and denyingRead MoreThe Cosmological Argument For The Existence Of God1957 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespremiss is so intuitively obvious, especially when applied to the universe, that probably no one in his right mind really believes it to be false.Ã¢â¬ In fact, scientific investigation purposes to study cause-effect relationships, and the principle of causality serves as the basis for our systematic examination of the physical world. Common experience and empirical evidence continually verify the causal principle, and falsification has not occurred. These considerations lead Dr. Craig to conclude, Ã¢â¬Å"It is